Trianon Treaty Day in Romania Date in the current year: June 4, 2024

Trianon Treaty Day in Romania Trianon Treaty Day (Ziua Tratatului de la Trianon) is an official observance in Romania. It is celebrated on June 4 to commemorate the signing of the Treaty of Trianon, which defined the border between Romania and Hungary after World War I.

Romania became a unified state in 1861, following the unification of the Danubian Principalities. When World War I broke out, Romania declared its neutrality, but struggled to preserve it due to being situated between three empires — Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian and Russian. In 1916, Romania joined the Allies and declared war on Austro-Hungary.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved into several independent states in November 1918. Each of its de jure successor states — Austria and Hungary — signed a separate peace treaty with the Allies. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye between the Allies and Austria was signed on September 10, 1919. The signing of a peace treaty with Hungary, however, was postponed due to the complicated political situation in the country.

The short-lived communist Hungarian Soviet Republic, led by Béla Kun, was unwilling to reach an agreement with the Allies. The signing of a peace treaty between Hungary and the Allies became possible only after the restoration of monarchy in Hungary with Miklós Horthy as regent in 1920.

Following a lengthy negotiation process, the peace treaty was finally drawn up. It second part defined the borders between Hungary and its neighboring states (Romania, Czechoslovakia, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Austria). Hungary lost over 2/3 of its territory; Romania, for example, received Transylvania and about 60% of Partium (parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș).

The Treaty of Trianon was signed in Versailles on June 4, 1920 and entered into force on July 26, 1921. It was a real national tragedy for Hungary, but in Romania, the treaty was perceived as the restoration of historical justice. Hungary subsequently regained the territory of Northern Transylvania under the Second Vienna Award, but it was transferred back to Romania after World War II.

In 2015, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania Titus Corlățean proposed that the anniversary of the Trianon Treaty be observed annually. However, it took five more years to actually discuss the proposal in the Hungarian National Assembly.

The bill on Trianon Treaty Day had to be sent back to revisions several times, as it elicited controversial reactions from members of parliament. It was also met with negative response from Romania’s Hungarians and Hungary itself. Opponents of the observance claimed that Romania decided to establish it to draw attention from Hungary’s National Unity Day, celebrated on the same day.

After months of debate, President Klaus Iohannis officially established Trianon Treaty Day on November 18, 2020, to be celebrated for the first time on June 4, 2021. The day is marked by cultural and educational events that aim to highlight the significance of the Trianon Treaty and its effect on the history of Romania.

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Trianon Treaty Day in Romania, observances in Romania, Treaty of Trianon, World War I