National Police Day in China Date in the current year: January 10, 2024

National Police Day in China National Police Day, also known as Chinese People’s Police Day, is an official professional observance in China celebrated annually on January 10. It was formally established in 2020 by the Ministry of Public Security of China with the endorsement from the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Council of the People’s Republic of China.

The People’s Police of the People’s Republic of China is China’s national civilian police force. It should not be confused with the People’s Armed Police, a paramilitary organization that reports to the Central Military Commission.

The People’s Police of China was formed in October 1949, shortly after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. The police force of China was originally named Public Security since it was part of the Ministry of Public Security. In fact, even today police stations in China are still referred to as public security bureaus or public security departments.

According to the Law on Police of the People’s Republic of China, adopted in 1995, the key tasks of the People’s Police are safeguarding state security, protecting the personal safety, freedom and legal property of citizens, protecting public property, maintaining public order, and preventing, stopping and punishing crimes and illegal activities.

The powers of the Chinese police force have expanded significantly since its inception. In addition to the tasks typically associated with the police, the People’s Police of China is responsible for the issuance of Resident Identity Cards (national IDs), household registration, website registration, cyber and network security, and border control (under the auspices of the China Immigration Inspection).

The People’s Police of China consists of four main constituents that report to different state agencies:

  • Public Security Police under the Ministry of Public Security comprises the majority of China’s national police force.
  • State Security Police under the Ministry of State Security.
  • Prison Police under the Ministry of Justice.
  • Judicial Police under the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate (Prosecutor General’s Office).

The Public Security Police performs all the functions typically associated with police, from patrolling the streets to investigating crimes. It comprises various departments, which include, but are not limited to, Patrol Police, Traffic Police, Criminal Investigations, Economic Crimes, Public Order, Political Security Police, etc.

The State Security Police is China’s secret police tasked with maintaining social stability and preserving the rule of the Chinese Communist Party. Prison Police officers perform prison guard duties, ensure prison security, and assist in prison administration. Finally, Judicial Police officers are responsible maintaining order and security in courts and persecutor’s offices at all levels, as well as assist in judicial investigations.

National Police Day in China is celebrated on January 10 (the 10th day of the 1st month) as a reference to the police hotline number 110, which was first introduced in Guangzhou in 1986 and became nationwide a decade later.

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National Police Day in China, holidays in China, professional holidays, People's Police of China, Chinese law enforcement